Cookbook

This cookbook exists to help you easily form Rel8 queries. It’s main purpose is to help those familiar with SQL to translate their queries into Rel8 Querys.

SELECT * FROM table

To select from a table, use each.

Inner joins

To perform an inner join against two queries, use where_ with a join condition. For example, the following SQL:

SELECT * FROM table_a JOIN table_b ON table_a.x = table_b.y

can be written as:

myQuery = do
  a <- each tableA
  b <- each tableB
  where_ $ tableAX a ==. tableBY b

Left (outer) joins

A LEFT JOIN query is performed by using optional.

For example, the query:

SELECT * FROM table_a LEFT JOIN table_b ON table_a.x = table_b.y

can be written as:

myQuery = do
  a <- each tableA

  maybeB <- optional do
    b <- each tableB
    where_ $ tableAX a ==. tableBY b

  return (a, maybeB)

Note that maybeB here will be a MaybeTable, which is the Rel8 Query-equivalent of Maybe. This allows you to observe if a left join has succeeded or failed.

Ordering results

A Query by default has no ordering - just like in SQL. If you rows back in a certain order, you can use orderBy with an Order.

For example, the query:

SELECT * FROM my_table ORDER BY my_table.id ASC, my_table.x DESC NULLS FIRST

can be written as:

myQuery =
  orderBy (mconcat [ myTableId >$< asc, myTableX >$< nullsFirst desc ]) $
  each myTableSchema

Note that we use >$< (from Data.Functor.Contravariant) to select table columns, and we can use mconcat to combine orderings.

If all columns of a table have an ordering, you can also use ascTable and descTable. For example:

myQuery = orderBy ascTable $ each myTableSchema

Aggregations

Aggregations in Rel8 work by using aggregate, which takes a Query (Aggregate a) and gives you back a Query a.

The following query:

SELECT sum(foo), count(distinct bar) FROM table_a

can be written as:

myQuery = aggregate do
  a <- each tableA
  return $ liftF2 (,) (sum (foo a)) (countDistinct (bar a))

where liftF2 comes from Data.Functor.Apply from the semigroupoids library.

Combining aggregations

As Aggregate is an instance of Apply (which is very similar to Applicative), individual aggregations can be combined. For example, one way to take the average rating would be to write the query:

SELECT sum(rating.score) / count(rating.score) FROM rating

In Rel8, we can write this as:

myQuery = aggregate do
  rating <- each ratingSchema
  return $ liftF2 (/) (sum (score rating)) (count (score rating))

You can also use RebindableSyntax and ApplicativeDo:

{-# language ApplicativeDo, RebindableSyntax #-}

import Data.Functor.Apply ((<.>))

myQuery = aggregate do
  rating <- each ratingSchema
  return do
    scoreSum        <- sum (score rating)
    numberOfRatings <- count (score rating)
    return (scoreSum / numberOfRatings)
  where (<*>) = (<.>)

For large aggregations, this can often make queries easier to read.

Tree-like queries

Rel8 has a fairly unique feature in that it’s able to return not just lists of rows, but can also return trees.

To understand what this means, we’ll consider a small example query for blog posts. We want our query to return:

  1. The latest 5 blog posts.

  2. For each blog post, all tags.

  3. For each blog post, the latest 3 comments.

In Rel8, we can write this query as:

latestBlogPosts = do
  post <- each postSchema

  tags <- aggregate do
    tag <- each tagSchema
    where_ (tagPostId tag ==. postId post)
    return (listAgg (tagName tag))

  latestComments <-
    many $
    limit 3 $
    orderBy (commentCreatedAt >$< desc) do
      comment <- each commentSchema
      where_ (commentPostId comment ==. postId post)

  return (post, tags, latestComments)